White Paper
the National Lifestyle
Fiscal Year 1995

"Looking back on 50 years of post-war years.....
...and forward, in search of an affuent
and diversified national lifestyle for Japan"

The Economic Planning Agency
Goverment of Japan

Table of contents


Part I
Affluence and Changes in Attitudes and Behaviour

Chapter 1: How affluent is the lifestyle of the Japanese people?

Section 1: The Changing Pattern of Japanese Lifestyles in the Post-warPeriod

  1. Changes in the Population Structure
  2. Rising Income Levels and Japan’s Return to International Society
  3. Changes in Japan’s Industrial Structure and the Rise of the“Salaryman”
  4. Urbanization
  5. The Growing Popularity of Higher Education and the Rise in Education Costs
  6. The Rise in Living Standards
  7. The Decline in Working Hours

Section 2: The Current State of Japan’s Economic Society after 50 Post-war Years.

  1. Affluence in the Japanese Lifestyle: The Current Situation and an International Comparison
  2. The Current State of Lifestyle Satisfaction in Japan
Chapter 2: Values and Behaviour in Working Life

Section 1: The Japanese Employment System and Its Import

Section 2: Change in the Japanese Employment System and Its Implications

Section 3: The Changing Attitudes of Working People in Japan

Section 4: Working Life in the Future

Chapter 3: Values and Behaviour in Domestic Life

Section 1: Changing Values in the Family and Home, and Their Origin

Section 2: The Marriage Environment and Changing Attitudes

  1. The Marriage Environment
  2. The Origins of Change in the Marriage Environment
  3. How the New Marriage Environment is Reflected in Changing Attitudes

Section 3: Children in the New Family Lifestyle

Section 4: Personal Relationships in the New Family Environment

Feature: Why Did American Women Take Up Working?

Chapter 4: Values and Behaviour in Societal Life

Section 1: Japan’s Social Indicators have not necessarily deteriorated with the Achievement of Affluence.

Section 2: Values of the Middle-Aged and Old Generations

Section 3: The Valuesof the Young Generation

Part II Trends in Household Expenditure for FY1994 in Recent Context
and the New Diversity in Consumption

Chapter 1: Recent Trends in Household Expenditure
Chapter 2: "Price Collapse" and the Recent Downward Trend in Prices

Section 1: The "Price Collapse" Phenomenon in Practice

Section 2: "Price Collapse" and Structural Change in Household and Corporate Behaviour

  1. Structural Change in Household Behaviour
  2. Structural Change in Corporate Behaviour

Section 3: "Price Collapse" and Deflation

Chapter 3: The Diversification of Consumption Behaviour

Section 1: The Effect of Social and Household Attributes on the Ownership of Durable Consumer Goods.

Section 2: Intergenerational Consumption Characteristics by Item Category


Looking back on 50 years of post-war history.

The Blossoming of the Japanese Employment System in the High Growth Era

The Role of Affluence in Easing Social Problems

The Reform of Tradition

Making Affluence a Reality in the Lifestyle of the Japanese People